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On the Babylonian captivity of the Church

De captivitate Babylonica ecclesiae praeludium

On the Babylonian captivity of the Church, prelude . Luther answers a number of opponents in this paper which was supposed to be a prelude to the expected recall in the Roman trial in reaction to the bull threatening a ban from June 1520.  

cover „De captivitate Babylonica ecclesiae praeludium“, Augsburg, 1520 
cover „De captivitate Babylonica ecclesiae praeludium“, Augsburg, 1520

He was repeatedly publicly attacked by theologists in Latin due to his sermon on Communion and his sermon on the New Testament. So he also answers the scholars in Latin.  

In this paper, questions of principles are exclusively at stake; thus Luther reduces the seven sacraments still valid in the Catholic Church up to today to two, baptism and Communion, however retains confession as a good regime.  

Marriage becomes part of the temporal order ordained by God. Basically, Luther pleads for handing bread and wine to the laity during Communion. The priest, who withholds wine to the laity, makes himself a sinner. 

However, as the laity receives its share of salvation through faith and longing for the sacrament, Luther is able to tolerate the temporary retention of the old practice. Baptism means the promise, solace and pledge of God. 

Only faithlessness can sever humans from this. In the context of baptism, Luther renews the doctrine of general priesthood he developed in the nobility paper. As a whole, this paper in particular conducts a radical theological attack against the power of the pope.